You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.

ฝาก 10 รับ 100 ผ่าน วอ เลท 1️⃣2021:International payment and exchange

print Print
Please select which sections you would like to print:
verified Cite
While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Select Citation Style
Corrections? Updates? Omissions? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).
Thank you for your feedback

pg slot โบนัส,BEAUTY ออกบูธงาน “Beauty World Middle East 2018”SUN เปิดบ้านต้อนรับคณะสื่อมวลชนTRITN จับมือ SIAM LNG เซ็น MOU ยักษ์、AIRA ร่วมมือ ตลท. จัดอบรมให้ความรู้แก่พนักงานHUMANปิดฉากโรดโชว์ นลท.ล้นหลามAPM จัดสัมมนา High-Flyer Entrepreneurคลิกลงทะเบียนฟรี!! “จับหุ้นเด่น เห็นอนาคต” 6 ต.ค.นี้MBKET ร่วมงาน OPPORTUNITY DAYASIMAR ประชุมสามัญผู้ถือหุ้น ปี 2561,เว็บ แจก เครดิต ฟรี ไม่ ต้อง ฝาก ก่อน 1️⃣2021、slot super 999 1️⃣2021、MBKET แบ่งปันมูลนิธิช่วยคนตาบอด ,FC เสิร์ฟโดมิโน่ส์ พิซซ่า งาน “mai Forum 2017”TKN ร่วมงาน Opportunity DayAECS ร่วมงาน Money Expo Korat 2017DTAC เปิดให้จอง Huawei P20 และ P20 ProDTAC จับมือ TQM เพิ่มฐานลูกค้า、QTC ให้การต้อนรับกลุ่มนักธุรกิจจาก BNIInvestment&Whisky Society เชิญร่วมหลักสูตรพิเศษเพื่อการลงทุน “ซิงเกิลมอลต์”。

SCB โชว์นวัตกรรม “Credit Scoring” หนุนเอสเอ็มอีเติบโตไปกับแม่มณีDTAC จัดโปรสั่งลุย ช้อปช่วยชาติSYNEX พบนักลงทุนในงาน Opportunity Day?EPG แถลงข่าวผลประกอบการปี 2560/61KBANK ผนึก SIRI จัดแคมเปญ Good Down Good DealTWPC พบผู้แนะนำนักลงทุน MBKETGBS ร่วมแถลงข่าวเปิดโครงการ Super Trader SS4,PTT รวมพลัง สร้าง Pride of ThailandGTB เซ็นซื้อขายเครื่องกำเนิดไอน้ำนายกฯเยี่ยมบูธ CHO ทดสอบ Smart City Bus"AIRA จัดงานเลี้ยง Exclusive สำหรับลูกค้าพิเศษ",PTT เชิญร่วมงานสัมมนาวิชาการ 2017ลูกค้า “มิตรสิบ ลิสซิ่ง” จ่ายเมื่อไรก็ฟรี!SCB พัฒนาระบบ e-Donation บริจาคเงินผ่าน QR Code ขอลดหย่อนภาษีได้ทันทีKKP สนับสนุนการเงินบ.ย่อย BIZECF จัดงาน COSTA Thank You Party 2018AGE รับรางวัล CSR-DIW Continuous Award เป็นปีที่ 7,KTC จัดกิจกรรมปันความรู้แก่น้องๆโรงเรียนคนตาบอดDTAC-สายการบินนกสกู๊ต จัดโปรฯเอาใจลูกค้าจีนQTC จัดงาน “คิวทีซี รักเด็ก ปี 2562”。

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!
External Websites

International payment and exchange, international exchange also called foreign exchange, respectively, any payment made by one country to another and the market in which national currencies are bought and sold by those who require them for such payments. Countries may make payments in settlement of a trade debt, for capital investment, or for other purposes. Other transactions may involve exporters, importers, multinational corporations, or persons wishing to send money to friends or relatives. The reasons for such payments, the methods of making them, and accounting for them are matters of importance for economists and national governments.

Economic life does not stop at national boundaries but flows back and forth across them. The money of one country, however, cannot as a rule be used in another country; the flow of payments must be interrupted at national boundaries by exchange transactions in which one national money is converted into another. These transactions serve to cover payments so long as there is a balance between them: local money can be exchanged against foreign money only insofar as there is a counterbalancing offer of foreign money in exchange.

In China and other countries with centralized economic planning, there are no legal private markets for foreign exchange; in those countries the state has a monopoly of the business of foreign trade, which is generally conducted through formal agreements on a country-by-country basis. While the currencies of the Communist countries have official par values, these bear no particular relationship to their purchasing power or to the prices at which goods are exchanged. The international economic relationships of those countries therefore fall outside the scope of this discussion.

Balance-of-payments accounting

The balance-of-payments accounts provide a record of transactions between the residents of one country and the residents of foreign nations. The two types of accounts used are the current account and the capital account.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now

The current account

When using balance-of-payments statistics, it is important to understand their basic concepts. The balance of payments includes, among other things, payments for goods and services; these are often referred to as the balance of trade, but the expression has been used in a variety of ways. In order to be more specific, some authorities have taken to using the expression “merchandise balance,” which unmistakably refers to trade in goods and excludes services and other occasions of international payment.

Figures for the merchandise balance often quote exports valued on an FOB (free on board) basis and imports valued on a CIF basis (including cost, insurance, and freight to the point of destination). This swells the import figures relative to the export figures by the amount of the insurance and freight included. The reason for this practice has been that in many countries the trade statistics have been based on customs house data, which naturally include insurance and freight costs for imports but not for exports. The authorities have more recently made a point of providing estimates of imports valued on an FOB basis.

Another expression, “balance of goods and services,” is often used. The British, however, continue to use the term invisibles for current services entering into international transactions. For many years the “visible” balance was taken to be equivalent to exports quoted FOB and imports CIF as explained above. The British authorities have more recently instituted another linguistic usage by which the visible balance is equivalent to the true merchandise balance. The old usage still lingers on in the less-expert literature.

And so the total current account is the balance of goods (merchandise) and services. The United Kingdom includes unilateral transfers among invisibles and in the current account. The United States statistics, more correctly, show them under a separate heading.

Services include such items as payments for shipping and civil aviation, travel, expenditures (including military) by the home government abroad and expenditures by foreign governments at home, interest and profits and dividends on investments, payments in respect of insurance, earnings of banking, merchanting, brokerage, telecommunications and postal services, films and television, royalties payable by branches, subsidiaries and associated companies, agency expenses in regard to advertising and other commercial services, expenditures by journalists and students, construction work abroad for which local payment is made and, conversely, earnings of temporary workers such as entertainers and domestic workers, and professional consultants’ fees. This list contains the more important items but is not comprehensive.

Among unilateral transfers the more important are outright aid by governments, subscriptions to international agencies, grants by charitable foundations, and remittances by immigrants to their former home countries.

The capital account

There is also the capital account, which includes both long-term and short-term capital movements.

Long-term flows

Long-term capital movement divides into direct investments (in plant and equipment) and portfolio investments (in securities). In the 19th century direct investment in plant and equipment was preponderant. The United Kingdom was by far the most important contributor to direct investment overseas. In the early part of the century it even contributed to the industrial development of the United States; later its attention shifted to South America, Russia, other European countries, and India. Investment in what came to be called the “Commonwealth” and “Empire,” not prominent at that time, became very important in the 20th century. The other countries of western Europe also made important contributions to direct investment overseas.

The most important items of direct investment were railways and other basic installations. In early stages direct investment may help developing countries to balance their payments, but in later stages there will have to be a flow of interest and profit in the opposite direction back to the investing country. The United Kingdom is frequently cited as the country whose overseas investments were most helpful for developing countries because its rapidly growing population and small cultivable land area permitted it to develop large net imports of food and to run corresponding deficits on its merchandise account. The complementary surplus this generated in the developing countries from which the imports came enabled them to pay the interest and profit on British capital without straining their balances of payments.

Between World War I and World War II the United States began to take a more active interest in overseas investment, but this was not always well-advised. After the great world slump, which started in 1929, international investment almost ceased for lack of profit opportunities.

After World War II the United States began to build up a leading position as overseas investor. The process accelerated in 1956 and afterward, both on direct investment and on portfolio investment accounts. This may have been partly due to the desire of U.S. firms to have plants inside the European Economic Community. Other countries also found more opportunities for capital export than there had been in the interwar period. The United Kingdom gave special attention to the Commonwealth. During the 1970s and 1980s Japan became a major overseas investor, financing its foreign investments with the funds accumulated with its large current account surpluses. The U.S. international position changed sharply in the 1980s. As a result of its large current account deficits, the United States accumulated large overseas debts. Its position changed from that of major net creditor (it had larger investments abroad than foreign nations had in the United States) to that of the largest debtor nation. Its liabilities to foreign nations came to exceed its foreign assets by hundreds of billions of dollars.

Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership
Learn More!
เครดิต ฟรี 50 บาท ไม่ ต้อง ฝาก 20211️⃣LOOK618 สมัคร gclub royal16881️⃣M98 สล็อต เกมส์ ไหน ดี โบนัส แตก บ่อย pg 1️⃣2021 เกม ออนไลน์ ไม่ ต้อง ลงทุน1️⃣M98 บา ค่า ร่า ออนไลน์ ขั้น ต่ํา 5 บาท1️⃣LOOK618 เล่น slotxo ฟรี1️⃣M98 mafia ฟรี 1️⃣2021 maxwin99 สล็อต ออนไลน์ 1️⃣2021 สมัคร สมาชิก โจ๊ก เกอร์ 123 1️⃣2021 โปร 100 บา คา ร่า1️⃣LOOK618
galaxy slot 8881️⃣LOOK618 แจก เค ดิ ต ฟรี ไม่ ต้อง ฝาก ไม่ ต้อง แชร์1️⃣M98 ฝาก ถอน ผ่าน true wallet 1️⃣2021 918kiss ฝาก ออ โต้ 1️⃣2021 เกม โจ๊ก เกอร์ 12341️⃣LOOK618
เค ดิ ต ฟรี 100 บาท 1️⃣2021 แอ พ สล็อต โจ๊ก เกอร์ 1️⃣2021 ยิง ปลา ส ตา เว กั ส1️⃣M98 สมัคร สมาชิก ใหม่ รับ เครดิต ฟรี 100 1️⃣2021 เว็บ บา คา ร่า ออนไลน์ ฟรี1️⃣M98
royal online v2 มือ ถือ ios 1️⃣2021 click live221️⃣LOOK618 royal gclub 16881️⃣LOOK618 slotv8 auto1️⃣M98 เกม gclub1️⃣LOOK618